How Panchgavya Manure is Transforming Agriculture

1. Panchgavya manure is the fermented concoction of five products of desi cow – milk, curd, ghee, gomutra and gomaya (gavyas) with jaggery, coconut water and ripened bananas.2. Panchgavya is a growth stimulant, biopesticide and an anti-fungal agent. 3. Panchgavya contains higher nutrients as compared to farmyard manure (FYM) and vermicompost.4. Panchgavya application on different seeds positively influences germination percentage, germination index, root and shoot length, and fresh and dry weight of the seedling. 5. Panchgavya applied soil has higher values of macro and micronutrients (zinc, copper, and manganese), microbial activity as compared to FYM, and vermicompost applied soils. 6. Panchgavya enhancesmetabolic activity of crop plants because of presence and increase of naturally occurring beneficial and effective microorganisms predominantly lactic acid bacteria, yeast, actinomycetes, rhizobacteria etc.7. Plants sprayed with Panchgavya invariably produce bigger leaves and develop denser canopy.8. Adding panchgavya during the composting process helps to improve the quality of compost. 9. Using panchgavya also helps to increase the yield and quality of the products (Subramanian 2005)10. Compared to chemical fertilizers, Panchgavya is less expensive and more eco-friendly with no side effects.
GROUNDNUTKumawat RN, Mahajan SS, Santra P (2013). Effect of Panchgavya on soil chemical properties of groundnut (Arachis hypogea) rhizosphere and crop productivity in Western Rajasthan. Journal of Food Legumes. Vol. 26 (1 and 2): 39-43. A field experiment was conducted on the high pH soils of arid zone of India to test the efficacy of panchgavya solution as an organic means to ameliorate sodic soil under irrigated condition. Soil application of panchgavya solution @ 3 l/m2 significantly decreased the soil pH from 9.0 to 8.3 during initial 5 days period whereas it increased soil organic carbon content by 50% and availability of P, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn in the rhizosphere by 17% over the control throughout the crop growth stages. The same treatment raised pod yield, haulm yield and biological yield to the tune of 85.3, 93.2 and 89.7% respectively, over the control.
CLUSTERBEANKumawat RN, SS Mahajan and RS Mertia. (2011). “Growth and yield of clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) grown on light textured soils with foliar application of fermented panchgavya.” The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 81, no. 3.
Saritha, M., B. Vijayakumari, Y. R. Hiranmai, and L. S. Kandari. (2013). “Influence of Selected Organic Manures on the Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Cluster Bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub).” Science, Tech and Arts Res Journal 2(2): 16-21.
The present study was focused on the influence of organic manures such as panchgavya, micro-herbal fertilizer, bio-fertiliser, humic acid and farm yard manure (FYM) on the germination and biometric parameters of cluster bean. The panchgavya soil treatment recorded best germination on 7th and 21st days after sowing and in panchagavya leaf treatment on 14th and 28th DAS.
PIGEON PEAAmalraj E Leo Daniel, G Praveen Kumar, SK Mir Hassan Ahmed, Rasul Abdul, and N Kishore (2013). “Microbiological analysis of Panchgavya, vermicompost, and FYM and their effect on plant growth promotion of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) in India.” Organic Agriculture 3, no. 1: 23-29.
Among the three preparations, Panchgavya had the highest population of total bacteria (22109 cfu ml-1), actinomycetes (60104 cfu ml-1), phosphate solubilizers (103106 cfu ml-1), fluorescent pseudomonas (151105 cfu ml-1), and nitrifiers (5.4106 cfu ml-1). Dehydrogenase activity (6.61 g g-1 h-1) and microbial biomass carbon (89.6 g g-1) were also found to be higher in Panchgavya. The short-term plant growth test with Cajanus cajan seeds treated with Panchgavya showed enhanced length of root (19.4 cm) and shoot (16.9 cm), dry mass (147 mg), leaf area (14.57cm2), chlorophyll content (23 spad units), and photosynthetic activity (18.8mol m-2 s-1) after 15 days of sowing.
GREENGRAMKumaravelu G and D Kadamban. (2009). “Panchgavya and its effect on the growth of the greengram cultivar K-851.” International Journal of Plant Sciences (Muzaffarnagar) 4, no. 2: 409-414. Seeds of greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek cv. K-851] were selected for Petriplate and pot studies. Experiments were initially conducted in Petriplates using Panchgavya (2, 3, 4, 5, and 6%). In Petriplateculture, under pre-soaked condition, the green gram seedlings showed significant growth increase at 4% Panch gavya treatment, whereas under Panchgavya irrigation, growth was promoted at 2%
SOYABEANSadar P.S, NS Kulkarni, SC Aithal, Mukund Bodhankar and JM Dalal (2012). “Effect of Panchgavya Amendment on Plant Growth Performance of Soyabean Glycine max (L) in Vertisol.” Journal of Empirical Biology 1, no. 01: 38-44. Panchgavya enhances metabolic activity of crop plants. The mixture of cow dung, butter, honey and ghee was reported to be beneficial in maintaining soil fertility and plant growth performance. The increase in population of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) under the influence of Panchgavya, they further suggested that, the possibility of the preferential utilization of nutritional element in the ingredient of Panchgavya. It also reduces the percent disease incidences of soybean Glycine max in pot treated with panchgavya in Fusarium sick soil. This indicates the positive use of panchgavaya on plant growth. CHICKPEAPatil SV, SI Halikatti, SM Hiremath, HB Babalad, MN Sreenivasa, NS Hebsur and G Somanagouda. (2012). “Effect of organics on growth and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in vertisols.” Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences 25, no. 3.
Among treatment combinations, application of enriched compost 1/3+vermicompost 1/3+glyricidia leaf manure 1/3 equivalent to 100% RDN and foliar spray of panchgavya @ 3% at flower initiation and 15 DAF has recorded significantly higher grain yield (2400 kg/ha), haulm yield (3423 kg/ha), number of pods per plant (66.38) and 100-seed weight (20.91 g) compared to other treatment combinations. SUNHEMPVallimayil J. and R. Sekar. (2012). “Investigation on the Effect of Panchgavya on Southern Sunhemp Mosaic Virus (SSMV) Infected Plant Systems.” Global Journal of Environmental Research 6, no. 2: 75-79.
Effects of application of panchgavya in the form of seed treatment and foliar spray to Southern Sunhemp Mosaic Virus infected sunhemp plants were studied. Growth and biochemical parameters studied showed better growth in panchgavya treated plants. A significant change in viral concentration was observed.
BLACKGRAMSaranraj P, R Suresh Kumar, P Ganesh and K Tharmaraj. (2011). “Growth and development of blackgram (Vigna mungo) under foliar application of Panchgavya as organic source of nutrient.” Current Botany 2, no. 3:9-11.
A pot culture experiment was conducted at the Experimental farm during March-May 2010 season to evaluate the efficacy of Panchagavya foliar spray and NPK on the physiological growth and yield of Blackgram. Yield attributes such as number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, test weight and grain yield were also recorded significantly higher under foliar application of Panchgavya over NPK and control.
RICE Yadav B K and AC Lourduraj (2006). Effect of organic manures and panchgavya spray on yield attributes, yield and economics of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Crop Research 31 (1): 1-5Panchgavya spray recorded significantly higher gross returns (Rs 37608/ha), net returns (Rs. 17822/ha) and benefit-cost ratio (1.92) as compared to without Panchgavya spray (Rs 34612/ha, Rs. 15586/ha and 1.84 respectively). Application of 50 per cent N through composted poultry manure + 50 per cent N through green leaf manure along with panchgavya spray recorded higher net returns (Rs. 17822/ha) followed by recommended NPK through panchgavya spray (Rs.15586) in rice.
Krishnapriya K and SN Padmadevi (2011). “Effect of panchagavya on the growth and biochemical contents of Oryza sativa var. Ponni.” Asian Jour of Bio Science 6(2): 258-259.
Rice is most important food crop of India. Shoot length, height of the plant, number of grains, 1000 grains weight, number of spikelet, grains protein and carbohydrates were studied. The results showed that in all the parameters studied panchagavya had a positive influence over the control.
Sumangala K and MB Patil. (2009). “Panchagavya-an organic weapon against plant pathogens.” Journal of Plant Disease Sciences 4, no. 2: 147-151.
This was evaluated in vitro for its antifungal potential through inhibition of spore germination and mycelial growth of Curvularia lunata a pathogen of grain discolouration of rice in rice growing tracts of Tungabhadra Project Area. Although many fungi have been isolated from discolored grains, Curvularia lunata was found dominant and located in all the parts of seed. Further, the panchgavya was also tested for its efficacy in strengthening defense mechanism in rice plants through seed treatment. Panchgavya resulted in 86.30 per cent inhibition of mycelial growth and 95.90 per cent inhibition of spore germination of Curvularia lunata in vitro. Seed treatment with Panchgavya further enhanced the seed germination with 90.70% and vigor index of 1036.36.
WHEATNaik Nagaraj and MN Sreenivasa. (2010). “Influence of bacteria isolated from panchagavya on seed germination and seed vigour in wheat.” Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences 22, no. 1.
The effects of bacteria (PB1-PB15) isolated from panchgavya on wheat seed germination and vigour were studied. Wheat seeds were dipped in the broth of the bacterial isolates for 10 minutes and allowed to germinate at 28±20°C for one week. the highest percentage of germination (99%) was recorded for seeds treated with PB9 and PB15,while the lowest was registered for the un-inoculated seeds, indicating the role of the bacterial isolates in promoting seed germination.
Nagaraj Naik, MN Sreenivasa. (2009). Influence of bacteria isolated from panchagavya on seed germination and seed vigour in wheat. Karnataka J Agric Sci. 22 (1). 231-232. This study clearly brought out that Panchgavya contains bacteria producing plant growth promoting substances as well as bacteria having biological deterrent activities. Presence of such beneficial microbial biomass might have resulted in improved seed germination, seedling length and seed vigour in wheat indicating panchgavya as an efficient plant growth stimulant.
TOMATOBhar LM, Kalyan K Mondal and SK Sugha. (2008).”Antibacterial potential of panchagavya -based microbes against bacterial wilt of tomato.” Indian Phytopathology 61, no. 3: 353-354. Notably, treatments with Serratia and P. flourescens resulted in 22 and 32 per cent wilt incidence as compared to control (100%) under soil free water culture assay, respectively. Thus, the present study indicated that the panchagavya being an important source of antagonistic microbes could be exploited in integrated wilt management programme in tomato.
Shakila, Arumugam and A Anburani. (2008). “Effect of certain organics and pressmud on growth and yield characters of tomato.” Asian Journal of Horticulture 3, no. 2: 273-276.
The combined application of farmyard manure plus vermicompost plus panchagavya as foliar spray resulted in improving the growth characters, i.e. plant height, internodal length, number of branches, number of leaves and leaf area and yield characters such as number of flower clusters per plant, number of flowers per cluster, number of fruits per plant, single fruit weight and fruit yield per plant in tomato followed by the application of 6.25 t pressmud/ha + 2.5 t vermicompost/ha + 3% panchagavya.
Gore, Nileema S and MN Sreenivasa (2012). “Influence of liquid organic manures on growth, nutrient content and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in the sterilized soil.” Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences 24, no. 2.
The Panchagavya is an efficient plant growth stimulant that enhances the biological efficiency of crops. It is used to activate biological reactions in the soil and to protect the plants from disease incidence. In the present study, significantly highestplant growth and root length was recorded with the application of Beejamruth+ Jeevamruth+Panchagavya and it was found to be significantly superior over other treatments.
CHILLIChandrakala M and Hebsur NS (2008): Effect of FYM and fermented liquid manures on yield and quality of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) – Ph D dissertation. University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad.
Among liquid manures, treatments L3 (Beejamrut+Jeevamrut + Panchagavya) and L2 (Panchgavya) recorded significantly higher dry chilli yield (8.52 and 8.01 q/ha, respectively) over control (6.40q/ha), the values for growth and other yield components were also significantly higher in these treatments.
The spray of Panchagavya on chillies produce dark green coloured leaves within 10 days. Its role as plant growth promoter has already been reported by Subhashini et al. (2001) and Sreenivasa et al. (2009).
LEAFY VEGETABLEEffect of Foliar Application of Panchgavya on Growth and Development of Leafy Vegetable. V.Sailaja1, N. Naga Ragini, Kanderi Dileep Kumar, B. Rajasekhr Reddy and Satyanarayana S.V International Journal of Agricultural and Food Science
The total viable count and the total bacterial count of Rhizobium , Azospirillum and Actinomycetes were enhanced in Panchagavya treated soil. Plant growth substances present in Panchagavya treated soil help to bring rapid changes in phenotypes of plants and also improves the growth and ultimately improve the productivity of Spinacia oleracea or spinach.

MANGOYelleshkumar HS, GSK Swamy, CP Patil, VC Kanamadi and Prasad Kumar. (2010). “Effect of Pre-Soaking Treatments on the Success of Softwood Grafting and Growth of Mango Grafts.” Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences 21, no. 3: 471-472. There were significant differences observed among the different bio-organics and chemical treatments. Maximum graft success was noticed in Panchagavya three percent (76.15%) followed by water soaking and GA3 100 ppm (74.17 and 73.73% respectively).
Panchgavya induces dense flowering with more female flowers. Irregular or alternate bearing habit is not experienced and continues to fruit regularly.
MILLETSMudigoudra Shrinivas and RA Balikai. (2010). “Evaluation of plant products in combination with cow urine and panchagavya against sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata Rondani.” Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences 22, no. 3.
A study was undertaken in Karnataka, India, to evaluate the effectiveness of different plant products in the management of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) shoot fly (Atherigona soccata). Panchgavya + neem seed kernel extract or P+NSKE recorded the highest yield of 14.16 q/ha.
Somasundaram E, M Mohamed Amanullah, K Vaiyapuri, K Thirukkumaran and K Sathyamoorthi. (2007). “Influence of organic sources of nutrients on the yield & economics of crops under maize based cropping system.” J Appl Sci Res3:1774-1777.
Somasundaram E, N Sankaran and TM Thiyagarajan. (2004). “Efficacy of organic sources of nutrients and panchagavya spray on productivity of crops in maize based cropping system.” Journal of Agricultural Resource Management 3, no. 1: 46-53.
The study revealed that higher yield of maize and sunflower was recorded under Biogas slurry (BGS) with Panchagavya. Grain yield of green gram was higher under recommended fertilizer treatments but it was comparable to BGS with Panchagavya. The economic analysis showed that BGS with Panchagavya was commercially viable since it registered the highest net returns

SPICES & MEDICINAL PLANTSPonni C and Arumugam Shakila. (2007). “Effect of certain organic manures and biostimulants on growth and yield of Phyllanthus niruri.” Asian Journal of Horticulture 2, no. 2: 148-150. Phyllanthus niruri of family Euphorbiaceae, commonly known as ‘Bhumyamalaki’ . The results revealed that application of FYM at 12.5 t/ha plus vermicompost at 2.5 t/ha along with panchagavya 3% proved to be the best treatment as it was found to record the highest plant height (83.17 cm), number of branches (30.23) and leaves(1115.87) and also recorded the maximum herbage yield (44.21 g/plant).

Kumawat RN, SS Mahajan and RS Mertia. (2011). “Response of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) to ‘panchgavya’ and plant leaf extracts in arid western Rajasthan.” Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops. Vol. 18, no. 2.
Compared to control, neem + ‘panchgavya’ increased grain, straw and biological yield by 58%, 72% and 65%, respectively.
Sritharan N, M Rajavel and CN Chandrasekhar. (2010). “Impact of Bioregulators on Phytochemicals and quality of Black Night shade solanum nigrum.” Madras Agric. J 97: 93-96.
Among the bio regulators, Panchagavya four per cent foliar spray registered highest dry matter production of 23.56 g and single plant yield of 73.10 g. The quality parameters like leaf and fruits olasodine content, ascorbic acid, total soluble solids, total phenolics and solasodine content were maximum enhanced with the application of Panchagavya. The High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis of various compounds present in hexane extract showed the impact of Panchagavya in production of greater number of phytochemicals.
Prabha MR and K Vasantha. (2010). “Effect of organic fertilizer and Panchagavya spray on the growth and biomass of Cassia angustifolia Vahl.” Plant Archives 10(1): 279-280.
From the results it was observed that the application of farmyard manure and 2% panchagavya has influenced the growth and biomass more than other treatments.
COFFEEBhat SS, AK Vinu and R Naidu. (2005). “Association of diverse groups of bacteria with ‘Panchagavya’ and their effect on growth promotion of coffee seedlings.” In ASIC 2004. 20th International Conference on Coffee Science, Bangalore, India, 11-15 October 2004., pp. 1192-1198. Association Scientifique Internationale du Café (ASIC), 2005.
TURMERIC Panchgavya enhances the yield by 22% with extra long fingers. Panchgavya also helps survival of dragon fly, spider etc which in turn reduce pest and disease load. Produce is sold for premium price as mother/seed rhizome and higher curcumin content.
Spray system3% solution was found to be most effective compared to the higher and lower concentrations investigated. Three litres of Panchagavya to every 100 litres of water is ideal for all crops. The power sprayers of 10 litres capacity may need 300 ml/tank. When sprayed with power sprayer, sediments are to be filtered and when sprayed with hand operated sprayers, the nozzle with higher pore size has to be used.
Flow system The solution of Panchagavya can be mixed with irrigation water at 50 litres per hectare either through drip irrigation or flow irrigation
Seed/seedling treatment3% solution of Panchagavya can be used to soak the seeds or dip the seedlings before planting. Soaking for 20 minutes is sufficient. Rhizomes of Turmeric, Ginger and sets of Sugarcane can be soaked for 30 minutes before planting.
PeriodicityPre flowering phase: Once in 15 days, two sprays depending upon duration of cropsFlowering and pod setting stage: Once in 10 days, two spraysFruit/Pod maturation stage: Once during pod maturation
For terrace gardeners, every 40 days is a good periodicity.
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